Codeine

Category:

Description

Codeine is similar to morphine, but its’ action is weaker; it actively impedes the cough center.
Codeine is an analgesic, whose effect is similar to that of morphine. However, it has softer sedative and much weaker anesthetic effect. Codeine is also used as an anti-cough and anti-diarrheal drug.
The drug is absorbed quickly. The binding to the plasma protein is insignificant.

Way of use and dosage

The drug must be taken orally. Adults: for pains — 15–60 mg every 3–6 hours, for diarrhea — 30 mg 4 times a day, for cough — 10–20 mg 4 times a day; for children, these doses are: 0.5 mg/kg 4–6 times a day, 0.5 mg/kg 4 times a day and 3–10 mg/kg 4–6 times a day respectively. The drug is administered intramuscularly in the same amounts, as in case of oral introduction. The maximum daily dosage is 120 mg.

Special indication

Avoid the combination with the other expectorants.
Don’t exceed the recommended dosage.
During the treatment, you should be cautious while driving and engaging in any other potentially dangerous activities that require increased concentration and fast psychomotor reactions.

Side effects

Respiratory distress, hypotension, sickness, vomiting, atonic bladder and colon, bradycardia, arrhythmia, allergic reactions: skin rash, itching, angioedema; the long-term use causes addiction (weakening or lack of effect in case of repeated application) and addiction (drug dependence – “codeinism”).

Contraindications

Hypersensitivity, bronchial asthma, pneumonia, respiratory failure, alcohol intoxication, craniocerebral injuries, hypotension, collapse, arrhythmia, epilepsy, liver and kidney dysfunction, intoxication diarrhea, hypo-coagulation conditions and pregnancy.

Overdose

Symptoms of acute and chronic overdose:
Cold and sticky sweat, confusion, vertigo, drowsiness, decrease in blood pressure, nervousness, fatigue, bradycardia, sharp weakness, slow and trouble breathing, hypothermia, anxiety, miosis, cramps, in severe cases — unconsciousness, apnea and coma.
Treatment: Stomach pump, cardiopulmonary resuscitation and cardiovascular/arterial pressure support; injection of Naloxone- specific opioid antagonist.
Interaction with other drugs and alcohol: The drug enhances the effect of neuroleptics, tranquilizers, alcohol, barbiturates, anesthetic and anti-hypertensive drugs. Naloxone and Naltrexone are specific drug antagonists.